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World War II Wiki
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World War II Wiki


ABOUT:[]

Nazi Germany, officially known as the Third German Reich and later renamed the Greater German Reich, is a period of German history from 1933 to 1945 when Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP), commonly known as the Nazi Party, held power. The term "Third Reich," meaning "Third Empire," was used by the Nazis to assert that Nazi Germany was the rightful successor to the Holy Roman Empire (800–1806) and the German Empire (1871–1918). The Nazis envisioned their regime, which they often referred to as the Thousand-Year Reich, as a long-lasting and dominant force. However, this ambition was short-lived, as the Third Reich came to an end in May 1945 after only 12 years. The Allied forces defeated Germany, The defeat of Nazi Germany in 1945 marked the end of the regime and the beginning of the post-war reconstruction period in Germany. During this time, Germany was under the authoritarian and totalitarian rule of Hitler.

Following Adolf Hitler's appointment as Chancellor of Germany by President Paul von Hindenburg on January 30, 1933, the Nazi Party swiftly moved to eliminate political opposition and consolidate its power. With Hindenburg's death on August 2, 1934, Hitler seized full control by merging the roles of Chancellor and President, solidified by a 1934 referendum confirming him as the sole Führer.

Under Hitler's dictatorship, power became highly centralized, with his decrees holding the highest authority. The government operated less as a coordinated body and more as a collection of factions vying for power. Amidst the Great Depression, the Nazis implemented policies that restored economic stability and reduced unemployment through substantial military spending. This included extensive public works projects such as the construction of motorways (Autobahnen) and a secret rearmament program that formed the Wehrmacht.

The regime's popularity surged with the return of economic stability, allowing Germany to make increasingly aggressive territorial demands. This culminated in the annexation of Austria in the Anschluss of 1938 and the acquisition of the Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia. In 1939, Germany signed a non-aggression pact with the Soviet Union but invaded Poland on September 1, 1939, marking the beginning of World War II in Europe. Germany, alongside Italy and other Axis powers, swiftly conquered much of Europe by 1940, posing a significant threat to Great Britain.

The regime's ideology was deeply rooted in extreme nationalism, militarism, expansionist policies. racism, eugenics, anti-Slavism, and particularly antisemitism. Nazis viewed Germanic peoples as the "master race," the purest form of the Aryan race. Those deemed undesirable, including Jews, Romani people, Slavs, homosexuals, political opponents, Jehovah's Witnesses, disabled individuals and other minority groups, were targeted for imprisonment, exile, or murder. Christian churches and dissenting citizens faced oppression, with leaders imprisoned.

Education emphasized racial biology, population policy, and military readiness, while opportunities for women in careers and education were restricted. The Nazi Propaganda Ministry played a pivotal role in shaping public opinion through films, mass rallies, and the promotion of a cult of personality around Hitler. The government tightly controlled artistic expression, endorsing certain art forms while banning or discouraging others.

The regime's atrocities included genocide, mass murder, and extensive forced labor as part of its racial policies.


Germany boasts a predominantly temperate climate. Its landscape is characterized by diverse terrain, featuring mountains in the southwest and southeast, extensive forests spanning much of the central regions, and grasslands in the north, which form part of the broader European Plain. The official language spoken in Germany is German.

History[]

Beginning of World War II[]

Germany pressured Austria, threatened its government to either surrender its territories to the Reich or face war. Due to economic struggles and a significant German population within Austria, it reluctantly consented to annexation by Germany. Later, Germany demanded control of the Sudetenland, inhabited by ethnic German minorities, from Czechoslovakia. In an attempt to appease Germany and prevent further aggression, France and Britain sought appeasement by permitting Germany to annex the Sudetenland during the Munich Conference of September 1938. Despite this concession, Germany's aggressive actions persisted, leading in the invasion of the remaining Czechoslovakian territories in August 1939, precipitating the outbreak of World War II as Germany made preparations for military conflict.

Before a month from the start of World War II, Germany and the Soviet Union made an agreement to invade Poland. Germany would control the western side of Poland, including Warsaw, and the Soviet Union would control the eastern side. Germany and The Soviet Union also made a non-aggression pact to prevent any wars between the two countries.

WWII started in September 1, 1939 when Germany invaded Poland. This caused Great Britain and France to declare war on Germany. After this came Canada, South Africa, India, et al. After a period inactivity or silence, Germany attacked Norway and Denmark, because France and Great Britain interfered with the steel trade from Sweden that helped make more weapons for Germany. Then, they then further invaded Belgium, Netherlands, France, and Luxembourg. First, Netherlands was easily defeated by a strategic move called "Blitzkrieg", which means "Lightning war". Basically, Netherlands was over-run by German tanks, which was called "Panzers".

The Fall of France[]

Then, The Germans were planning to attack France. At first, The Germans would use the old strategy, which involved going into Belgium, then coming from the north into Paris, but instead, The Germans used Blitzkrieg again. First, Germany bombed an area near Alsace-Lorraine, which weakens the troops there. Then, Germany launched a massive amount of troops at that area, and swept through France until it reached the coast near Dunkirk. The best of the British and French army were encircled, and the German troops attacked the encircled army. Thankfully for the Allies, some troops manage to escape via the port at Dunkirk. After that, the city has been captured and Germany prepared to invade the rest of France. German troops breezed into France, and captured Paris. Hitler called this historical event "The Fall of Paris", as of a great nation has fallen to Germany. Germany continued to invade the rest of France, and shortly after, Italy declared war on the Allies. France then surrendered after a huge part of their territory in Europe has been occupied. Germany annexed Alsace-Lorraine, established Vichy France at the south, and kept the rest of the occupied lands for coastal defenses against Britain.

Battle of Britain[]

Germany's next target was Britain. The Germans were ready to flank Britain from the south, but unfortunately, their naval forces were far more superior. The only way Hitler was able to control Britain was to get full dominance in the air. The German's Luftwaffe (Air force) has much more planes, than Britain had. This battle did end shortly, but there was bombing from both sides.

Axis invasion of Yugoslavia and Greece[]

Germany, which has Northern France, had to help their ally, Italy with the Italo-Greek War. They decided to go through the Balkans in order to invade Greece properly. Yugoslavia and Bulgaria were sent a decision, which is to either join the Axis or get invaded. Bulgaria chose to join the Axis, while Yugoslavia refused to join, which led to the Axis invasion of Yugoslavia. Yugoslavia was partitioned and some new puppet states were made there. After that, Greece was then invaded.

Operation Barbarossa

A map of Operation Barbarossa

Germany's attention to Soviet Union[]

In 1941, Hitler was planning to turn Germany's attention to the Soviet Union. Operation Barbarossa was planned to attack Soviet Union in the east, following up its allies such as Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, and Finland. The massive invasion led about over 3 million troops. Hitler planned that once the Soviet Union was conquered, he would make all of western Soviet Union controlled states, into a huge home for Germany by destroying Slavic cities, and creating new German cities. Other non-Slavic countries serve as puppet states. This operation caused most of the deaths (besides the holocaust of Nazi Germany) as lots of millions of Soviet troops, and civilians.

Declaration of war against the United States[]

Following the Pearl Harbor attack, Germany declared war on the United States, to support Japanese conquests in the Pacific. Perhaps this was one of the mistakes that caused Germany's fall in 1945.

Africa[]

Germany decided to gain several materials to fight against the allies. Oil, was one of the main sources for Germany's powerful tanks and planes. As the Germans advanced on, the allies stopped Germany from reaching the primary source of oil, which was in the middle east. Unfortunately, Italy couldn't stop the allies from coming up to north-western Africa from Sicily. As Italian fascism fell, the Germans had to protect northern Italy from going into mainland Germany.

D-Day, and the Soviet Retaliation[]

After a few months of fighting in Africa, and the holding up on the eastern front, the Soviets started to retaliate with a massive army that was recently recruited. Since it was the winter of 1943, the Germans didn't have resources to supply themselves in the cold. Adolf Hitler told the German commander in the east to keep fighting their way to the eastern cities. However, the Germans either died off in the war in the eastern front, or died in the cold while advancing. Instead, some Germans even made camps to protect themselves against the Soviets. Unfortunately, the Soviets slowly make their way to eastern Europe, while destroying any German camps nearby. The Germans, and their allies in the east quickly depleted, before they even got into Moscow. Meanwhile, the allies were in a stalemate in Italy, while defeating German troops in the Middle East so the allies can supply oil to themselves.

In early June, 1944, the Germans were fortifying themselves in the western front to prevent any liberation against the allies. The allies surprised Germany by invading Normandy (Operation: D-day)  with the allies gaining the advantage. Since most of the German troops were in the eastern front, the allies were successful in liberating northern France.

The Fall of Nazi Germany[]

After a couple months of fighting in the eastern, and western fronts, Germany's army started to deplete rapidly, with only a couple of defensive cities that Germany had fortified before the allies invaded. The Soviets in the east had very little resistance against the Germans, which made it easy for the Soviets to capture the eastern countries. The allies in northern Africa liberated a few countries in the Balkans, and all African countries that were under the Axis controlled areas. In late 1944, the allies had liberated France from German forces.

Battle of Berlin

A Soviet soldier raising the flag over the Reichstag during the Battle of Berlin

In early 1945, Germany was starting to face defeat, and Adolf Hitler lived in an armored bunker in case the Soviets had reached Berlin already. In April 1945, before Hitler committed suicide, the Soviets were having an intense battle with the last remaining German soldiers, but this time, Berlin was very well fortified. In the last day in April, the Soviets were victorious, and Adolf Hitler committed suicide with his wife in the bunker before the Soviets got to them.

However, the allies were still fighting German forces after the first few days in May. Germany decided to surrender under the Soviets, and the allies officially, on May 8, 1945. Within the surrender, Germany was divided into four zones, which were controlled by the British, French, American, and Soviet forces. Berlin was also divided up into four zones, because the Soviets had more control over eastern Germany than the allies had.

Legacy[]

Nazi Germany, overall, was a very powerful country in Europe at that time. Since the Germans were blamed for killing 6 million Jews, and other disabled attributes of people, Germans today promised not to do anything like that ever again. However, Nazism today seem to spread influence into several other countries. Germany is responsible for paying anything that is associated with Nazism since the criminal code was established .The influence of Nazi Germany still is just a haunting shadow of the world today.

The Holocaust[]

More Info: The Holocaust


The Holocaust was a massive killing of mostly Jews, people with disabilities, and people who aren't with the Nazi regime. When Adolf Hitler started to appoint himself as chancellor of Germany in 1935, he established the Nuremberg Laws, which indicates that all Jews were required to wear a Jewish badge, and follow brutal laws in German lands. However, before the laws were established one month earlier, Adolf Hitler warned all Jewish people to move out of Germany, or they might face severe consequences. The Jews that Hitler considered to be bad, were killed in Jewish concentration camps found mostly in Poland.

Political Geography[]


References[]



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